Breathlessness (or dyspnea) is a subjective sensation of the acute or chronic human feeling shortness of breathing with chest tenseness, increasing in respiratory rate more then eighteen per minute and a rise in its depth. Usually person does not pay attention to his own breathing located at rest. Breathing changes at moderate exertion rate and depth and people realize it, and such condition does not give him discomfort feelings, besides breathing performance comes to normal for several minutes after exercise. If exertional dyspnea becomes more severe during mild loading, or occurs during a person is doing elementary actions (at home walking, when tying shoelaces), or, even worse, breathing problems do not pass into a state of rest, it is a pathological shortness of person’s breathing, indicating about some sicknesses.
If the patient complains on difficulty breathing, so such respiratory shortness is generally called as inspiratory one. It mostly appears at the narrowing of the trachea’s lumen and the large bronchial tubes (for example, in patients with bronchial asthma or as a result of compression of the bronchus from the outside - with pneumothorax, pleurisy, etc...). If the sick individual has dyspnea on exertion, this is chiefly called the expiratory breathlessness. It occurs due to small bronchial tubes’ narrowing of the lumen and is a sign of emphysema or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. There are some reasons for the mixed apnea - a disorder inhalation and exhalation. Primary among them are cardiac decompensation and different lung illnesses in the later, advanced stages. Today it is well-known five levels of the dyspnea’s severity, determined on the basis of complaints of the patient - Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (MRC).
The main reasons of dyspnea may be divided into four main groups:
The breathing failure is generally conditioned by several damages of the bronchial patency, different diffuse sicknesses of the lungs’ tissues (parenchyma), many illnesses if the pulmonary vessels and various diseases if the breathing muscles or person’s chest.
Also this negative state can accompany such unpleasant conditions of the patient’s organism as hypertension or hypotension (very often), female gestation or period of menstruation, several upsets of the central nervous system and mental system, overloading of brains, general weakness, depression and epilepsy and many others. Sometimes the attacks of allergy (especially by highly allergic individuals) may be mostly accompanied by dyspnea and breathing stopping.
If a person suffers from trouble breathing, he feels that it is mainly needed a special muscular effort to breathe in or breathe out; before full exhalation is made, there is an unpleasant the need to take the next breath, there are other sensations often described as chest pain and shortness of breath.
Before you begin your treatment of respiratory shortness, please read this material very attentively. If you are not confident that you can cope with shortness of breath, seek medical helping immediately. The physicians can help you to make the truth reasons of your problems, and prescribe the necessary medical cure from concrete sickness for example:
Some conditions require emergency medical care, so you should seek medical attention immediate if breathlessness is accompanied with the following symptoms:
As the first aid it is mostly necessary to ensure sufficient inflow of fresh air volume, to lower the legs down and seat the patient comfortably. In order to avoid the attacks of breathlessness provocation it is also followed to take off exposure to pollutants, tobacco smoking and if it is possible you do not inhaled allergens and environmental toxins.